It varies with transmission and manufacturer so you will need to check your service manual. Towing, taxi, dusty conditions, police, etc are considered "hard service" and typically radically compress the recommended service mileage.
For example, my 2008 GMC Allison Transmission owners manual says:
Change spin on Allison filter at first oil change and -
Check Fluid level and add as required every year with DEXRON VI
In areas where the ambient temperatures are below -40F or C, the use of Synthetic transmission fluid is approved, however ONLY use Allison specification TES-295 or warranty is void.
Change automatic transmission fluid and spin on filter every 100,000 miles (normal service)
Change automatic transmission fluid and spin on filter every 50,000 miles
Severe Service - Footnote (h) regardless of DIC notification
Footnote (h) - GVWR of vehicle over 8600 pounds and driven in:
City traffic when outside air temp exceeds 90 degrees F
Hilly or mountainous terrain
Frequent trailer towing
Taxi, Police, or delivery service
My wife's 2012 LaCrosse states to change the transmission fluid every 45,000 miles regardless of service.
Hope this helps
(PS - My dad always told me that if I forgot to have my transmission serviced by 50,000 miles to NEVER get it serviced as the crud in the seals is the only thing keeping the oil in. Changing it after 50,000 will result in severe tranny leaks. He was right about a few other things and I never tested his transmission theory and took it on faith.)