I suggest these GE Carbon Replace Filter 2-Pack-FXWTC at The Home Depot
or something similar that says "carbon" on the label somewhere.
Activated carbon works pretty well to remove chlorine smell and to a lesser
degree it can remove some of the plastic hose smell/taste.
Any filter will remove debris large enough to clog your flush valve.
Can you maybe remove the line and somehow aim it at a bucket or drain
and give the line a good flush?? Sounds like you've got construction
debris in your water system.